Barn Record Hebron

Building Name (Common)
Building Name (Historic)
476 Church Street (Rte 85), Hebron



Historic Significance

Architectural description:  

This is a tall 1 ½-story gable-roofed structure with its ridge-line oriented east-west perpendicular to the road. It appears to be a 4-bay structure. The principal entry façade is the south eave-side, where there is a pair of exterior sliding doors in the second bay from the right (east) with a transom window above. The transom is made up of a pair of sliding windows, not the full width of the door opening; these may be replacements as the sill extends beyond the extant window openings. In the right (east) bay there is a pass-through door near the corner. In the two left bays there are modern overhead garage doors.
The east gable-end has a six-over-six double-hung window in the attic and no other openings. The north eave-side has a pair of barn doors similar and corresponding to the south side. The eight-pane transom above may represent the original configuration for both sides. In the left (east) bay there is a rectangular stable window with four panes. In the right (west) bays there are two similar windows.
Siding is vertical flush-boards painted red. Roofing is asphalt shingles with a narrow overhang.

Historical significance:

The oldest barns still found in the state are called the “English Barn,” “side-entry barn,” “eave entry,” or a 30 x 40. They are simple buildings with rectangular plan, pitched gable roof, and a door or doors located on one or both of the eave sides of the building based on the grain warehouses of the English colonists’ homeland. The name “30 by 40” originates from its size (in feet), which was large enough for 1 family and could service about 100 acres. The multi-purpose use of the English barn is reflected by the building’s construction in three distinct bays - one for each use. The middle bay was used for threshing, which is separating the seed from the stalk in wheat and oat by beating the stalks with a flail. The flanking bays would be for animals and hay storage.

In this example a fourth bay appear so have been constructed at the west end, resulting in the off-center location of the barn doors.

Historical background:

Hebron, incorporated as a town in 1708, grew slowly as families from other areas bought tracts of land and settled. Farms were spread out throughout the town, with only the area around the town common and meetinghouse as a focal
point. There were few houses there in the 18th century, but the crossroads at the center also provided the core for a small commercial nucleus in the form of a tavern and store.

After the Revolutionary War Hebron began to grow and many more buildings were constructed, forming a small village at the town center. The main road through the village, present-day Route 66, was improved as the Hebron and Middle Haddam Turnpike, further contributing to the village’s prosperity. Church Street also began to expand and develop. The 19th century saw an increase in religious diversity, and as other denominations formed, they built their meeting places at the town center. In the 20th century, the process was repeated: United Brethren synagogue reflects the settlement of East European Jews in Hebron in the early 20th century. Taking up egg and dairy farming, they gave new life to the town’s farmlands(Clouette, Section 8).

The Air Line Trail is the site of the former Air Line Railroad, built to connect Boston with New York City in the shortest route possible - as if by a “line”drawn through the “air” via the city of New Haven. The Air Line Railroad was a controversial project because of such obstacles as the Connecticut River and countless
ridges, along with its exclusion of the capitol city of Hartford. Nevertheless, by 1873, this railroad was functioning from New Haven to Willimantic. At these points, the Air Line was able to link with other rail lines to connect New York and Boston in the shortest way then possible. The freight and passenger trains utilizing the Air Line became quite numerous. By 1877, Colchester Center was linked to the Air Line at Turnerville (now Amston) via the Colchester Railroad. As the weight of freight trains increased over the years, the Air Line’s weight-restricting viaducts, numerous curves, and high grades eventually led to its decline (CT DEP Air Line brochure).


Field Notes

Red, pitched roof.

Use & Accessibility

Use (Historic)

Use (Present)

Exterior Visible from Public Road?




Location Integrity

Original Site


Related features

Environment features

Relationship to surroundings

This 1.4-acre site is located on Church Street near the intersection with North Pond Road. The Airline State Park Trail runs diagonally from southwest to northeast crossing Church Street just to the south. Formerly the New York and New England Air Line Railroad, a station was located in this area, then known as Turnerville. A number of commercial uses along Church Street are reminders of the railroad era. The remainder of the vicinity is a mix of farms and residential developments. The associated farmhouse at 476 Church Street is a mid-19th-century Greek Revival style house of 2 ½ stories, oriented with its gable-end facing the road. An ell extends north and another west from the main block. The property itself is mowed lawn or pasture, surrounded by adjacent woodlands.

Typology & Materials

Building Typology


Structural System

Roof materials

Roof type

Approximate Dimensions

644 square feet


Date Compiled


Compiled By

Charlotte Hitchcock, reviewed by CT Trust


Field notes and photographs by Michelle Sinkez 04/15/2010.

Town of Hebron Assessor’s Record
Parcel ID:  67/9 1.4 acres   house built 1850 barn c. 1940 644 sf.

Aerial Mapping:   accessed 2/03/2011.

Bartel, M., Airline Railroad, History: accessed 2/03/2011.

Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, The Air Line Trail brochure, 2007:

Clouette, Bruce, Cronin, Maura, Hebron Center National Register Historic District Nomination 93000649, National Park Service, 1993.

Sexton, James, PhD, Survey Narrative of the Connecticut Barn, Connecticut Trust for Historic Preservation, Hamden, CT, 2005,

Visser, Thomas D., Field Guide to New England Barns and Farm Buildings, University Press of New England, 1997.

PhotosClick on image to view full file