Barn Record Ledyard

Building Name (Common)
William Noyes Farmstead - Part 2 of 2
Building Name (Historic)
William Noyes Farmstead
343 Gallup Hill Road, Ledyard


Historic Significance

Architectural description:

Barn B, now at 343 Gallup Hill Road, has been converted for residential use. It is a 2 1/2-story gable-roofed three-bay bank barn structure; its ridgeline is oriented east-west. The south eave-side facing the road is two stories high plus a basement level at grade below. There is a row of paired stable-type windows in the lower floor and two pairs of one-over-one double-hung windows in the upper floor. The gable roof has a deep overhang, and there is a cupola at the ridge with louvered vents on all sides. Siding is board and batten, stained red. There is a basement level opening to the street, with an overhead garage door flanked by a six-pane window on each side above a fieldstone foundation wall.

The east gable-end sits on a foundation of massive stone blocks. The main level (grade at the uphill north side) has two small windows and the upper floor has no openings. There is a four-pane window in the peak of the attic.

The north eave-side has a concrete apron leading to a pair of barn doors with tall transom lights over. The doors are hinged with iron strap hinges. The west gable-end has a pass-through door and window at the basement level and two groups of three double-hung windows at the main level. The upper level has no openings.

Historical significance:

The oldest barns still found in the state are called the “English Barn,” “side-entry barn,” “eave entry,” or a 30 x 40. They are simple buildings with rectangular plan, pitched gable roof, and a door or doors located on one or both of the eave sides of the building based on the grain warehouses of the English colonists’ homeland. The name “30 by 40” originates from its size (in feet), which was large enough for 1 family and could service about 100 acres. The multi-purpose use of the English barn is reflected by the building’s construction in three distinct bays - one for each use. The middle bay was used for threshing, which is separating the seed from the stalk in wheat and oat by beating the stalks with a flail. The flanking bays would be for animals and hay storage.

Historical background:

Excerpt from NR Nomination Item 8: The William Noyes Farmstead is locally significant as an exceptional example of an eighteenth-century farmstead. Not only does it have exceptional integrity of setting, it is distinguished by an outstanding dwelling which embodies in its appearance, orientation, materials, and massing, the essential characteristics of a farmhouse of this period. It derives further significance from its finely crafted Federal-style detailing and a vernacular building history that is town, if not region, specific. The Noyes House is one of the few known surviving examples of a local two-story farmhouse to incorporate this building tradition. A two-stage evolution, often with the same cellar plan, is more commonly demonstrated in the Cape form in Ledyard. - - - - - - - - - - - - - Ledyard was a “daughter town,” several stages removed from the settlement of the oldest parent community, New London, and the second stage community of Groton, as European settlers pushed inland from the coast in the early 18th century. Threats of Native American (Indian) attack were no longer a problem and people moved into remote areas to build farms widely separated from neighbors, in contrast to the earlier settlements focused on proximity to a meeting house. Native Americans remained a significant presence throughout history, with the Mashantucket Pequot tribal reservation first dating from the 1660s. As the last section of Connecticut to be settled by Europeans, Ledyard contains some of the least desirable acreage for farming, located in a post-glacial landscape of bedrock and boulder-strewn glacial till. The land was acquired by descendants of the New London proprietors. Small farms, water-powered mills, lumbering, and fishing provided means of support. An exceptional level of family cohesiveness evolved in Ledyard, with family ties taking precedence over community. Several local population centers became small village clusters, including Gales Ferry, Ledyard Center, Quakertown, and the Gurdon Bill Store site. Ledyard citizens played a significant part in the Revolutionary War. Later, in the 19th and 20th centuries, subsistence farming shifted to dairy farming to serve the urban markets of New London and Norwich. The maritime and naval shipbuilding of the Thames River later influenced the residential development of Ledyard, while the growth of the tribal casinos brought further growth in the late 20th century. Source: Cunningham, Ledyard HRI.

Field Notes

Part of the William Noyes Farmstead, originally one property with 340 Gallup Hill Road, but subsequently subdivided. Converted to residence. See entry for 340 Gallup Hill for further information.

Use & Accessibility

Use (Historic)

Use (Present)

Exterior Visible from Public Road?




Location Integrity



Related features

Environment features

Relationship to surroundings

Gallup Hill Road is, according to the NR Nomination, a road laid out subsequent to the construction of this farmstead. Hence it may not have originally run across the rear of the house and between the barns. The area is second growth woodlands and scattered homes plus a few areas of open fields. 343 Gallup Hill Road is a 2.7-acre parcel remaining from a larger farm.

Typology & Materials

Building Typology


Structural System

Roof materials

Roof type

Approximate Dimensions

28 feet x 38 feet


Date Compiled


Compiled By

Charlotte Hitchcock, reviewed by CT Trust


Photographs from National Register Nomination, Town of Ledyard Assessor’s Records.
Town of Ledyard Assessor’s Record Map/Lot 130-810-343.

Cunningham, Jan, A Historic and Architectural Resource Survey of the Town of Ledyard, Ledyard Historic District Commission, 1992.

Cunningham, Jan, William Noyes Farmstead National Register Nomination No. 92001644, National Park Service, 1992.

Foster, Kit, Ledyard Town Historian, history of Ledyard

Sexton, James, PhD, Survey Narrative of the Connecticut Barn, Connecticut Trust for Historic Preservation, Hamden, CT, 2005,

Visser, Thomas D., Field Guide to New England Barns and Farm Buildings, University Press of New England, 1997.

PhotosClick on image to view full file